Wed. Jun 26th, 2024

Plant and Animal Cell

Plant and Animal Cell

Some Important MCQs on the discovery related to the Cell and Cell organelles.

Q1. Who is credited with the discovery of the cell?

a) Louis Pasteur
b) Robert Hooke
c) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
d) Matthias Schleiden

Answer: b) Robert Hooke
Explanation: Robert Hooke is credited with the discovery of the cell in 1665 when he observed a thin slice of cork and coined the term “cell”.

Q2. Who first observed living cells under a microscope?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Theodor Schwann
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Explanation: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe living cells, such as bacteria and protozoa, using a microscope.

Q3. Which scientists are associated with the development of the cell theory?

a) Louis Pasteur and Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Rudolf Virchow
c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
d) Robert Brown and Albert Einstein

Answer: c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Explanation: Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann are credited with the development of the cell theory, which states that all living things are composed of cells.

Q4. Who proposed that all cells arise from pre-existing cells?

a) Matthias Schleiden
b) Theodor Schwann
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Louis Pasteur

Answer: c) Rudolf Virchow
Explanation: Rudolf Virchow proposed that all cells arise from pre-existing cells, contributing to the cell theory.

Q5. Who discovered the nucleus in plant cells?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Robert Brown
d) Matthias Schleiden

Answer: c) Robert Brown
Explanation: Robert Brown discovered the nucleus in plant cells in 1831.

Q6. Who is credited with the discovery of the Golgi apparatus?

a) Camillo Golgi
b) Santiago Ramón y Cajal
c) Robert Hooke
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: a) Camillo Golgi
Explanation: Camillo Golgi discovered the Golgi apparatus in 1898 using a staining technique he developed.

Q7. Who first observed mitochondria?

a) Richard Altmann
b) Albert von Kölliker
c) Christian de Duve
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: b) Albert von Kölliker
Explanation: Albert von Kölliker first observed mitochondria in the 1850s, and Richard Altmann later identified them as “bioblasts” in the 1890s.

Q8. Who discovered lysosomes and peroxisomes?

a) George Palade
b) Camillo Golgi
c) Christian de Duve
d) Albert Claude

Answer: c) Christian de Duve
Explanation: Christian de Duve discovered lysosomes and peroxisomes in the 1950s.

Q9. Who is known for the discovery of ribosomes?

a) Albert Claude
b) George Palade
c) Christian de Duve
d) Robert Hooke

Answer: b) George Palade
Explanation: George Palade discovered ribosomes in the mid-1950s using electron microscopy.

Q10. Who first described the endoplasmic reticulum?

a) Camillo Golgi
b) Keith Porter
c) Santiago Ramón y Cajal
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: b) Keith Porter
Explanation: Keith Porter and his colleagues first described the endoplasmic reticulum in the 1940s using electron microscopy.

Q11. Who proposed the cell theory along with Matthias Schleiden?

a) Theodor Schwann
b) Robert Hooke
c) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: a) Theodor Schwann
Explanation: Theodor Schwann, along with Matthias Schleiden, proposed the cell theory in 1839, which states that all living organisms are composed of cells.

Q12. Who discovered the structure of the plasma membrane as a lipid bilayer?

a) Gorter and Grendel
b) Singer and Nicolson
c) Davson and Danielli
d) Robert Hooke

Answer: a) Gorter and Grendel
Explanation: Gorter and Grendel proposed the lipid bilayer structure of the plasma membrane in 1925.

Q13. Who developed the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane?

a) Gorter and Grendel
b) Singer and Nicolson
c) Davson and Danielli
d) Camillo Golgi

Answer: b) Singer and Nicolson
Explanation: Singer and Nicolson developed the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane in 1972.

Q14. Who first observed the Golgi apparatus and with what technique?

a) Robert Brown with light microscopy
b) Camillo Golgi with silver staining
c) Keith Porter with electron microscopy
d) George Palade with electron microscopy

Answer: b) Camillo Golgi with silver staining
Explanation: Camillo Golgi first observed the Golgi apparatus using a silver staining technique he developed.

Q15. Who discovered that all plants are made up of cells?

a) Theodor Schwann
b) Matthias Schleiden
c) Robert Hooke
d) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Answer: b) Matthias Schleiden
Explanation: Matthias Schleiden proposed that all plants are made up of cells in 1838.

Q16. Who is credited with the discovery of the vacuole?

a) Robert Brown
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Christian de Duve

Answer: b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Explanation: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is credited with the discovery of vacuoles in the late 17th century when he observed them in protozoa.

Q17. Who discovered the concept of the “cell” by observing cork cells under a microscope?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Theodor Schwann
d) Matthias Schleiden

Answer: a) Robert Hooke
Explanation: Robert Hooke discovered the concept of the “cell” by observing cork cells under a microscope in 1665.

Q18. Who discovered the centriole?

a) Camillo Golgi
b) Boveri and Van Beneden
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Robert Brown

Answer: b) Boveri and Van Beneden
Explanation: The centriole was discovered by Boveri and Van Beneden in the late 19th century.

Q19. Who discovered chloroplasts and their role in photosynthesis?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Jan Ingenhousz
c) Julius von Sachs
d) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Answer: c) Julius von Sachs
Explanation: Julius von Sachs discovered chloroplasts and their role in photosynthesis in the 19th century.

Q20. Who discovered the centrosome?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Theodor Boveri
c) Camillo Golgi
d) George Palade

Answer: b) Theodor Boveri
Explanation: Theodor Boveri is credited with the discovery of the centrosome in 1888.

Q21. Who discovered microtubules?

a) Keith Porter and Albert Claude
b) Robert Brown
c) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: a) Keith Porter and Albert Claude
Explanation: Keith Porter and Albert Claude were instrumental in the discovery of microtubules through their work with electron microscopy in the 1940s.

Q22. Who discovered the cytoskeleton and its components?

a) Albert Claude, Keith Porter, and George Palade
b) Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
d) Rudolf Virchow and Camillo Golgi

Answer: a) Albert Claude, Keith Porter, and George Palade
Explanation: Albert Claude, Keith Porter, and George Palade are credited with the discovery of the cytoskeleton and its components (microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments) through their pioneering work in cell biology.

Q23. Who discovered the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?

a) Albert Claude and Keith Porter
b) Camillo Golgi and Robert Brown
c) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke
d) Rudolf Virchow and George Palade

Answer: a) Albert Claude and Keith Porter
Explanation: Albert Claude and Keith Porter discovered the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum through their work with electron microscopy in the 1940s.

Q24. Who discovered the concept of cell theory, which includes the idea that cells are the basic unit of life?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
d) Rudolf Virchow

Answer: c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Explanation: Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann developed the cell theory in 1839, stating that all living organisms are composed of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of life.

Q25. Who discovered the function of the lysosome in intracellular digestion?

a) George Palade
b) Keith Porter
c) Christian de Duve
d) Camillo Golgi

Answer: c) Christian de Duve
Explanation: Christian de Duve discovered the function of lysosomes in intracellular digestion in the 1950s.

Q26. Who discovered the double helix structure of DNA, which is stored in the nucleus of the cell?

a) James Watson and Francis Crick
b) Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
d) Albert Claude and George Palade

Answer: a) James Watson and Francis Crick
Explanation: James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA in 1953.

Q27. Who discovered that mitochondria have their own DNA and can replicate independently of the cell?

a) George Palade
b) Lynn Margulis
c) Christian de Duve
d) Albert Claude

Answer: b) Lynn Margulis
Explanation: Lynn Margulis proposed the endosymbiotic theory, which suggests that mitochondria have their own DNA and can replicate independently of the cell.

Q28. Who first used the term “cell” to describe the basic unit of life?

a) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
b) Robert Hooke
c) Matthias Schleiden
d) Theodor Schwann

Answer: b) Robert Hooke
Explanation: Robert Hooke first used the term “cell” to describe the basic unit of life when observing cork cells under a microscope in 1665.

Q29. Who discovered the cell membrane’s fluid mosaic model?

a) Gorter and Grendel
b) Singer and Nicolson
c) Davson and Danielli
d) Robert Brown

Answer: b) Singer and Nicolson
Explanation: Singer and Nicolson developed the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane in 1972, describing it as a flexible layer made of lipid molecules interspersed with proteins.

Q30. Who discovered the presence of ribosomal RNA in the ribosomes?

a) George Palade
b) James Watson
c) Francis Crick
d) Albert Claude

Answer: a) George Palade
Explanation: George Palade discovered the presence of ribosomal RNA in ribosomes, contributing significantly to our understanding of protein synthesis.

Q31. Who is known for discovering the vacuole in plant cells?

a) Robert Hooke
b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
c) Matthias Schleiden
d) Robert Brown

Answer: b) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Explanation: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is credited with the discovery of vacuoles in the late 17th century while observing plant cells.

Q32. Who is credited with the discovery of the chromatin network inside the nucleus?

a) Walther Flemming
b) Robert Hooke
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Theodor Schwann

Answer: a) Walther Flemming
Explanation: Walther Flemming is credited with discovering the chromatin network inside the nucleus and describing the process of mitosis.

Q33. Who discovered the role of the nucleolus in ribosome production?

a) Robert Brown
b) Theodor Schwann
c) George Palade
d) Eric K. Lark

Answer: c) George Palade
Explanation: George Palade’s work in cell biology revealed the role of the nucleolus in ribosome production.

Q34. Who first described the lysosomal storage diseases?

a) George Palade
b) Christian de Duve
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Albert Claude

Answer: b) Christian de Duve
Explanation: Christian de Duve first described lysosomal storage diseases, which occur due to the malfunction of lysosomal enzymes.

Q1. What is the basic unit of life?
a) Atom
b) Molecule
c) Cell
d) Tissue
Answer: c) Cell

Q2. Who coined the term ‘cell‘?
a) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
b) Robert Hooke
c) Matthias Schleiden
d) Theodor Schwann
Answer: b) Robert Hooke

Q3. Which of the following is not a type of cell?
a) Prokaryotic
b) Eukaryotic
c) Viral
d) Mycotic
Answer: c) Viral

Q4. Which structure is responsible for controlling the activities of a cell?
a) Cytoplasm
b) Nucleus
c) Mitochondria
d) Ribosome
Answer: b) Nucleus

Q5. What is the function of the ribosome?
a) Energy production
b) Protein synthesis
c) DNA replication
d) Lipid synthesis
Answer: b) Protein synthesis

Q6. Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell?
a) Chloroplast
b) Golgi apparatus
c) Mitochondria
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: c) Mitochondria

Q7. What is the main component of the cell membrane?
a) Nucleic acids
b) Proteins
c) Lipids
d) Carbohydrates
Answer: c) Lipids

Q8. Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?
a) Mitochondria
b) Chloroplast
c) Ribosome
d) Lysosome
Answer: b) Chloroplast

Q9. Which of the following structures is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
a) Nucleus
b) Mitochondria
c) Cell wall
d) Ribosomes
Answer: c) Cell wall

Q10. What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
a) Protein synthesis
b) Protein modification and sorting
c) Energy production
d) Lipid synthesis
Answer: b) Protein modification and sorting

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Q11. Which structure is involved in cell division?
a) Nucleus
b) Mitochondria
c) Centrioles
d) Lysosome
Answer: c) Centrioles

Q12. What is the primary function of lysosomes?
a) Protein synthesis
b) Waste breakdown and disposal
c) Lipid synthesis
d) Energy production
Answer: b) Waste breakdown and disposal

Q13. What is the fluid matrix inside the cell called?
a) Cytoplasm
b) Nucleoplasm
c) Endoplasm
d) Exoplasm
Answer: a) Cytoplasm

Q14. Which organelle is responsible for detoxifying harmful substances?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Lysosome
c) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
d) Mitochondria
Answer: c) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Q15. Where are chromosomes located?
a) Cytoplasm
b) Nucleus
c) Ribosomes
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: b) Nucleus

Q16. Which of the following is a function of the cell membrane?
a) Protecting the cell’s DNA
b) Controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell
c) Producing energy for the cell
d) Storing genetic information
Answer: b) Controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Q17. What are the building blocks of proteins?
a) Nucleotides
b) Amino acids
c) Monosaccharides
d) Fatty acids
Answer: b) Amino acids

Q18. What is the primary role of mitochondria in cells?
a) Synthesizing proteins
b) Producing ATP
c) Digesting waste materials
d) Replicating DNA
Answer: b) Producing ATP

Q19. Which cell organelle contains digestive enzymes?
a) Lysosome
b) Ribosome
c) Nucleus
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: a) Lysosome

Q20. What is the double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus called?
a) Cell wall
b) Nuclear envelope
c) Plasma membrane
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: b) Nuclear envelope

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Q21. What is the site of cellular respiration?
a) Chloroplast
b) Ribosome
c) Mitochondria
d) Lysosome
Answer: c) Mitochondria

Q22. In which organelle does protein synthesis occur?
a) Mitochondria
b) Golgi apparatus
c) Ribosome
d) Nucleus
Answer: c) Ribosome

Q23. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
a) Providing structural support to the cell
b) Synthesizing proteins
c) Storing genetic information
d) Producing energy
Answer: a) Providing structural support to the cell

Q24. Which of the following is a characteristic of prokaryotic cells?
a) Presence of a nucleus
b) Presence of membrane-bound organelles
c) Absence of a nucleus
d) Larger size compared to eukaryotic cells
Answer: c) Absence of a nucleus

Q25. Which of the following organelles is involved in lipid synthesis?
a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c) Mitochondria
d) Lysosome
Answer: b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Q26. What is the genetic material in cells made of?
a) Proteins
b) Lipids
c) DNA
d) Carbohydrates
Answer: c) DNA

Q27. Where are ribosomes typically found in a cell?
a) Nucleus
b) Cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Mitochondria
Answer: b) Cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum

Q28. What structure separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
a) Cell membrane
b) Nuclear envelope
c) Endoplasmic reticulum
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: b) Nuclear envelope

Q29. Which type of cell has a cell wall?
a) Animal cell
b) Plant cell
c) Fungal cell
d) Both b and c
Answer: d) Both b and c

Q30. What is the main function of chloroplasts?
a) Cellular respiration
b) Photosynthesis
c) Protein synthesis
d) Detoxification
Answer: b) Photosynthesis

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Q31. What is the jelly-like substance inside a cell called?
a) Cytoplasm
b) Nucleoplasm
c) Endoplasm
d) Exoplasm
Answer: a) Cytoplasm

Q32. Which of the following is a component of the cytoskeleton?
a) Microtubules
b) Ribosomes
c) Mitochondria
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: a) Microtubules

Q33. What structure is involved in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNa)?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Nucleolus
c) Endoplasmic reticulum
d) Mitochondria
Answer: b) Nucleolus

Q34. What are the energy-carrying molecules produced during cellular respiration?
a) NADPH
b) ATP
c) ADP
d) AMP
Answer: b) ATP

Q35. What is the primary function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Protein synthesis
b) Lipid synthesis and detoxification
c) DNA replication
d) Cellular respiration
Answer: b) Lipid synthesis and detoxification

Q36. Which of the following structures is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
a) Nucleus
b) Mitochondria
c) Ribosome
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: c) Ribosome

Q37. What is the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells called?
a) Meiosis
b) Mitosis
c) Binary fission
d) Budding
Answer: b) Mitosis

Q38. What type of cell has a nucleus?
a) Prokaryotic cell
b) Eukaryotic cell
c) Bacterial cell
d) Viral cell
Answer: b) Eukaryotic cell

Q39. Which structure is primarily responsible for cell movement?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Endoplasmic reticulum
c) Cytoskeleton
d) Mitochondria
Answer: c) Cytoskeleton

Q40. What is the site of protein modification and packaging?
a) Ribosome
b) Nucleus
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Lysosome
Answer: c) Golgi apparatus

Q41. Which organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
a) Nucleus
b) Mitochondria
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Lysosome
Answer: b) Mitochondria

Q42. What process occurs in the chloroplasts?
a) Glycolysis
b) Photosynthesis
c) Fermentation
d) Krebs cycle
Answer: b) Photosynthesis

Q43. What is the network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain its shape?
a) Cytoskeleton
b) Cytoplasm
c) Endoplasmic reticulum
d) Nucleolus
Answer: a) Cytoskeleton

Q44. Which phase of the cell cycle is characterized by DNA replication?
a) GQ1 phase
b) S phase
c) GQ2 phase
d) M phase
Answer: b) S phase

Q45. What is the semi-permeable membrane surrounding the cell called?
a) Nuclear envelope
b) Cell wall
c) Plasma membrane
d) Cytoplasm
Answer: c) Plasma membrane

Q46. Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
a) Endoplasmic reticulum
b) Golgi apparatus
c) Lysosome
d) Mitochondria
Answer: d) Mitochondria

Q47. What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the passage of materials into and out of the cell?
a) Cell wall
b) Plasma membrane
c) Nucleus
d) Ribosome
Answer: b) Plasma membrane

Q48. Which of the following organelles is involved in energy production in animal cells?
a) Chloroplast
b) Ribosome
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Mitochondria
Answer: d) Mitochondria

Q49. What are the tiny structures that perform various functions within the cell called?
a) Cells
b) Tissues
c) Organs
d) Organelles
Answer: d) Organelles

Q50. Which cell organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?
a) Mitochondria
b) Lysosome
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Ribosome
Answer: b) Lysosome

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Q51. What is the role of the nucleolus?
a) DNA replication
b) RNA synthesis
c) Protein synthesis
d) Lipid synthesis
Answer: b) RNA synthesis

Q52. Which of the following processes is used by cells to take in large particles by engulfing them?
a) Exocytosis
b) Endocytosis
c) Diffusion
d) Osmosis
Answer: b) Endocytosis

Q53. Which of the following structures is present in both plant and animal cells?
a) Cell wall
b) Chloroplast
c) Mitochondria
d) Central vacuole
Answer: c) Mitochondria

Q54. What is the primary function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Protein synthesis
b) Lipid synthesis
c) Carbohydrate metabolism
d) ATP production
Answer: a) Protein synthesis

Q55. Which type of cell division results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells?
a) Meiosis
b) Binary fission
c) Mitosis
d) Budding
Answer: c) Mitosis

Q56. Which of the following is a characteristic of eukaryotic cells?
a) Lack of a nucleus
b) Presence of membrane-bound organelles
c) Smaller size than prokaryotic cells
d) Circular DNA
Answer: b) Presence of membrane-bound organelles

Q57. Which of the following organelles is involved in the modification and transport of proteins?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Ribosome
c) Lysosome
d) Chloroplast
Answer: a) Golgi apparatus

Q58. What is the main difference between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Presence of DNA
b) Presence of ribosomes
c) Type of lipids synthesized
d) Function in the cell
Answer: b) Presence of ribosomes

Q59. What is the process by which cells release energy from glucose?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Glycolysis
c) Fermentation
d) Osmosis
Answer: b) Glycolysis

Q60. What is the liquid component of the cytoplasm called?
a) Cytosol
b) Cytoskeleton
c) Nucleoplasm
d) Endoplasm
Answer: a) Cytosol

Q61. Which of the following structures helps in cell division in animal cells?
a) Nucleolus
b) Centrioles
c) Lysosomes
d) Ribosomes
Answer: b) Centrioles

Q62. What is the process of programmed cell death called?
a) Apoptosis
b) Necrosis
c) Mitosis
d) Meiosis
Answer: a) Apoptosis

Q63. Which organelle is responsible for producing ribosomes?
a) Nucleus
b) Nucleolus
c) Mitochondria
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: b) Nucleolus

Q64. What is the site of lipid and steroid hormone synthesis in the cell?
a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Lysosome
Answer: b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Q65. Which of the following structures are involved in protein synthesis?
a) Mitochondria and chloroplasts
b) Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus and lysosomes
d) Nucleus and cytoskeleton
Answer: b) Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum

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100+ MCQs on Animal and Plant Tissues

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Q66. Which type of RNA carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosome?
a) rRNA
b) tRNA
c) mRNA
d) siRNA
Answer: c) mRNA

Q67. What is the term for the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane?
a) Diffusion
b) Osmosis
c) Active transport
d) Facilitated diffusion
Answer: b) Osmosis

Q68. Which organelle is involved in detoxifying harmful substances?
a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c) Mitochondria
d) Ribosomes
Answer: b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Q69. What is the dense region of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized?
a) Chromatin
b) Nucleolus
c) Nuclear envelope
d) Cytoplasm
Answer: b) Nucleolus

Q70. What is the function of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Cellular respiration
c) Protein synthesis
d) Lipid synthesis
Answer: b) Cellular respiration

Q71. Which organelle modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for secretion?
a) Ribosome
b) Endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Mitochondria
Answer: c) Golgi apparatus

Q72. What is the name of the process by which cells take in fluids by forming vesicles?
a) Phagocytosis
b) Pinocytosis
c) Exocytosis
d) Endocytosis
Answer: b) Pinocytosis

Q73. What is the term for the network of membranes involved in protein and lipid synthesis?
a) Cytoskeleton
b) Endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Mitochondria
Answer: b) Endoplasmic reticulum

Q74. What structure do plant cells have that animal cells do not?
a) Nucleus
b) Mitochondria
c) Cell wall
d) Ribosomes
Answer: c) Cell wall

Q75. Which type of cell lacks a membrane-bound nucleus?
a) Eukaryotic cell
b) Prokaryotic cell
c) Plant cell
d) Animal cell
Answer: b) Prokaryotic cell

Q76. What is the primary function of chlorophyll in chloroplasts?
a) Cellular respiration
b) ATP synthesis
c) Absorbing light energy for photosynthesis
d) Protein synthesis
Answer: c) Absorbing light energy for photosynthesis

Q77. What is the main function of vacuoles in plant cells?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Protein synthesis
c) Storage of nutrients and waste products
d) Cellular respiration
Answer: c) Storage of nutrients and waste products

Q78. Which type of cell junction allows the passage of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells?
a) Tight junctions
b) Gap junctions
c) Desmosomes
d) Plasmodesmata
Answer: b) Gap junctions

Q79. What is the primary role of peroxisomes in cells?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Protein synthesis
c) Breakdown of fatty acids and detoxification
d) Cellular respiration
Answer: c) Breakdown of fatty acids and detoxification

Q80. What is the main function of the cytoskeleton?
a) Protein synthesis
b) Providing structural support
c) ATP production
d) DNA replication
Answer: b) Providing structural support

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100+ MCQs on Animal and Plant Tissues

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Q81. Which of the following structures are involved in protein synthesis?
a) Mitochondria and chloroplasts
b) Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum
c) Golgi apparatus and lysosomes
d) Nucleus and cytoskeleton
Answer: b) Ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum

Q82. What is the function of messenger RNA (mRNa) in cells?
a) Synthesizing proteins
b) Transferring amino acids
c) Carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosome
d) Storing genetic information
Answer: c) Carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosome

Q83. What is the name of the process by which cells secrete large molecules by vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane?
a) Endocytosis
b) Exocytosis
c) Phagocytosis
d) Pinocytosis
Answer: b) Exocytosis

Q84. Which type of cell contains a large central vacuole?
a) Animal cell
b) Plant cell
c) Bacterial cell
d) Fungal cell
Answer: b) Plant cell

Q85. What is the function of the centrioles in animal cells?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Protein synthesis
c) Organizing microtubules during cell division
d) Cellular respiration
Answer: c) Organizing microtubules during cell division

Q86. What is the role of ATP in cellular activities?
a) Genetic information storage
b) Structural support
c) Energy currency
d) Protein synthesis
Answer: c) Energy currency

Q87. Which organelle is responsible for assembling amino acids into proteins?
a) Ribosome
b) Nucleus
c) Mitochondria
d) Lysosome
Answer: a) Ribosome

Q88. What is the process by which a cell engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle called?
a) Phagocytosis
b) Pinocytosis
c) Exocytosis
d) Endocytosis
Answer: a) Phagocytosis

Q89. Which of the following structures is involved in energy production in plant cells?
a) Chloroplast
b) Ribosome
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Lysosome
Answer: a) Chloroplast

Q90. What is the primary function of the plasma membrane?
a) DNA replication
b) Protein synthesis
c) Regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell
d) Cellular respiration
Answer: c) Regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Q91. Which organelle is the site of cellular respiration?
a) Chloroplast
b) Ribosome
c) Mitochondria
d) Lysosome
Answer: c) Mitochondria

Q92. Which type of RNA is involved in carrying amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis?
a) rRNA
b) tRNA
c) mRNA
d) siRNA
Answer: b) tRNA

Q93. What is the term for the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane?
a) Osmosis
b) Diffusion
c) Active transport
d) Facilitated diffusion
Answer: a) Osmosis

Q94. What is the name of the process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen?
a) Photosynthesis
b) Fermentation
c) Cellular respiration
d) Glycolysis
Answer: b) Fermentation

Q95. Which of the following organelles is involved in protein packaging and distribution?
a) Ribosome
b) Nucleus
c) Golgi apparatus
d) Lysosome
Answer: c) Golgi apparatus

Q96. What is the function of transfer RNA (tRNa) in cells?
a) Synthesizing proteins
b) Transferring amino acids to the ribosome
c) Carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosome
d) Storing genetic information
Answer: b) Transferring amino acids to the ribosome

Q97. What is the primary role of mitochondria in cells?
a) Synthesizing proteins
b) Producing ATP
c) Digesting waste materials
d) Replicating DNA
Answer: b) Producing ATP

Q98. Which structure separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
a) Cell membrane
b) Nuclear envelope
c) Endoplasmic reticulum
d) Golgi apparatus
Answer: b) Nuclear envelope

Q99. What is the main function of chloroplasts?
a) Cellular respiration
b) Photosynthesis
c) Protein synthesis
d) Detoxification
Answer: b) Photosynthesis

Q100. Which of the following structures helps in cell division in plant cells?
a) Nucleolus
b) Centrioles
c) Cell plate
d) Ribosomes
Answer: c) Cell plate

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Q101. What is the largest cell in the human body?
a) Red blood cell
b) Nerve cell
c) Ovum (egg cell)
d) Skin cell
Answer: c) Ovum (egg cell)

Q102. Which of the following is the longest cell in the human body?
a) Muscle cell
b) Nerve cell
c) Liver cell
d) Red blood cell
Answer: b) Nerve cell

Q103. Among plants, where are the largest cells typically found?
a) Roots
b) Stem
c) Leaves
d) Flowers
Answer: c) Leaves

Q104. What is one of the smallest known bacteria?
a) Escherichia coli (E. coli)
b) Bacillus anthracis
c) Mycoplasma
d) Streptococcus
Answer: c) Mycoplasma

Q105. In animals, which cells are among the largest?
a) Skin cells
b) Liver cells
c) Muscle cells
d) Ovum (egg cell)
Answer: d) Ovum (egg cell)

egg and sperm cell

Q106. What is the approximate size of the largest cell in the human body, the ovum (egg cell)?
a) 0.1 mm
b) 1 cm
c) 0.2 mm
d) 1 mm
Answer: c) 0.2 mm

Q107. Which of the following is the approximate length of the longest cell in the human body, the neuron?
a) 1 meter
b) 1 centimeter
c) 1 kilometer
d) 10 meters
Answer: a) 1 meter

Q108. What is the approximate size of one of the smallest known bacteria, Mycoplasma?
a) 10 micrometers
b) 0.2 micrometers
c) 1 micrometer
d) 100 micrometers
Answer: b) 0.2 micrometers

Q109. What is the largest cell in the world?
a) Ostrich egg
b) Blue whale nerve cell
c) Titan arum plant cell
d) African elephant egg
Answer: a) Ostrich egg

Q110. What is the approximate size of the largest cell, the ostrich egg?
a) 1 cm in length
b) 5 cm in length
c) 10 cm in length
d) 15 cm in length
Answer: d) 15 cm in length

The ostrich egg is one of the largest cells in the world, with a length of around 15 cm and a diameter of about 13 cm.

Q111. What is the smallest cell in the human body?
a) Red blood cell
b) Nerve cell
c) Sperm cell
d) Platelet
Answer: c) Sperm cell

Sperm cells are the smallest cells in the human body, typically measuring about 5 micrometers in diameter.

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